About 25 miles (40km) south of Beijing, in the Fangshan District, is the Zhoukoudian Cave, source of the largest collection of Homo erectus fossils from any single site in the world. The fossils recovered from Zhoukoudian represent about forty individuals. Most famous of these remains is a cranium element commonly known as the 'Peking Man', the world's earliest fire-using primitive man who lived between 200,000 and 700,000 years ago. German anatomist Franz Weidenreich studied the Peking Man remains in the 1930s and recognised 12 anatomical features that he believed Peking Man shared with modern Chinese, a milestone in the study of paleoanthropology. Visitors to the Zhoukoudian site on Dragon Bone Hill can view a comprehensive seven-room exhibition of fossils and artefacts depicting human evolution and the lifestyle of primitive man. The exhibits showcase fossils from all over China, allowing visitors to compare the apparently different lifestyles of the primitive communities that have been discovered. Visitors can also enter the cave where the Peking Man cranium and other Homo erectus remains were found. The area surrounding the caves has several animal sculptures and pleasant shady areas in which to relax. Travellers who go early might even have the site to themselves.
Address: Zhoukoudian, Fangshan
Transport: Bus 917 from Tianqiao station to Zhoukou Cun Lukou, before taking Fangshan Bus 38 to Yuan Ren Yi Zhi (Zhoukoudian Cave)
Opening times: 8:30am-4:30pm
Admission: CNY30 (adults), concessions available