São Vicente Caves
Caves © Allie_Caulfield
Formed 890,000 years ago, the São Vicente Caves are among the first caves of volcanic origin to be opened to the public in Portugal. The caves were formed by a volcanic eruption which occurred in Paul da Serra. The outer part of the lava that was exposed to lower temperatures solidified rapidly while the inside remained liquid with lots of gases, forming a series of lava tubes. The caves were first reported in 1885 by locals and opened to the public on October 1st, 1996. At the end of the tour, visitors may access the Volcano Centre, a pavilion offering a range of educational and entertaining audio-visual displays. They recreate the geological evolution of the caves and the eruption of a volcano. They also simulate the birth of the Madeira Islands.