Gortyna © Andrew Skudder
Gortyna is both a municipality in Greece and an archaeological site on Crete which was once the Roman capital of the island. The two are unrelated. The remains of the ancient city of Gortyna, to the south of Heraklion, tell a later tale than that of the other archaeological sites in Crete, despite the fact that there is evidence of human settlement in the area dating back to the Neolithic era. The greatest treasure of the site is the Gortyn Law Code, recorded on important inscribed stones which date back to the 5th century BC. These remarkable stones are a complete code of law based on Minoan tradition. The Code stones are still preserved and exhibited in the north round wall of the Roman Odeon at the Gortyna site (although of course the theatre was built much later, in the 1st century). Other highlights at Gortyna include the Church of St Titus, where Christianity was first introduced to the island, and the Temple of Apollo Pythios, which dates from 700 BC. The city was thriving before Roman invasion but its early alliance with the Romans meant that it was not invaded and became even more powerful in the region. The site is often called Gortyn, rather than Gortyna.